Stop playing the race card, Najib’s critics tell him

September 21, 2015

Stop playing the race card, Najib’s critics tell him

So where does that leave Najib? What option has he left? He can either resign and allow Dr Mahathir’s proxy to take over or he can try to stay in office with the support of the only people who still support him — the stupid Malays and those country bumpkins from the kampung and those he has bought off with BR1M.


by Raja Petra Kamaruddin

john malottJohn R. Malott

Pete, I don’t think it is an issue of convincing the US that Najib is anti-West. I know that he is not. He has tried very hard to have a great relationship with us and other countries in the West. The real issue is this: In order to stay in power, Najib is pandering to the most racist, most intolerant, and most ignorant parts of Malaysian society. His comments to the Red Shirts/Silat group today are the best example of that — telling them that he and they are “willing to die for the Malay race” because they were slapped in the face four times (by the Chinese). And no matter what he said, Najib will never die for Malaysia — he and Rosmah will escape on a private jet to one of their many condos overseas.

As an American, my greatest concern is that Malaysia will go the way of Sri Lanka, or Bosnia, or so many other countries that have been torn apart throughout history by race and religion, because of the politically expedient actions of their leaders, whose only goal was to gain and stay in power, and to keep the money coming in. That is what Najib is doing now, for his own personal, political, and financial gain. And if that happens — if Malaysia starts to fall apart over racial and religious divide lines — then think about all of America’s investment in Malaysia that will be in jeopardy, and our cooperation on defence and counter-narcotics and terrorism. Long-term, that is why we should be concerned about Najib’s racial pandering.

It might not be a violent ending. Malaysia is not like other countries. It could just be the steady drip-drop of many of Malaysia’s most educated and most talented, regardless of race or religion, deciding that they want to live in freedom overseas. –John R. Malott, former US Ambassador to Malaysia

That was what John Malott, the United States Ambassador to Malaysia from 1995 to 1998 said yesterday. Looking at the Malaysian situation from a purely foreign diplomat’s point of view, Malott is actually right. But when you take politics into consideration, then Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak may not be too far off the mark.

The Racist Naib

Dato Jamal Md Yunos,

I mean, even Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad rose the ranks of UMNO against the backdrop of Malay nationalism, which some may interpret as racism. Tun Musa Hitam became the Deputy President of UMNO and the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia also using Malay nationalism, or racism if you wish to call it that.

Anwar Ibrahim not only played the race card but the religion card as well to climb the ladder of the UMNO leadership. Ex-Deputy Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin once declared that he is Malay first and everything else second.

According to the polls, more than 50% of Americans think that President Obama is not only a Muslim but was born in Africa, which means he is a pendatang and not a real American. Two days ago, Donald Trump, one of the Republican candidates for the US Presidency, did not correct the statement by a member of the audience who said that about Obama when Trump knows that Obama was born in the US and is a Christian.

Trump was heavily criticised for allowing this distortion but then he was just being a good politician. And he also feels that immigrants are taking jobs away from Americans and that something must be done about it, especially when immigrants are the cause of crime in the US, or at least that is what Trump thinks.

This is the man who wants to be the next US President and he, too, plays the race and religion card when it suits him. If that is what more than half the US voters expect of him then this is the card he will play as long as he can win the Presidency. And did not President Bush say that God asked him to attack Iraq, which means God is a Christian?

Is this good politics on the part of Najib? Should Najib prove that he is the Prime Minister of all Malaysians and not just the Prime Minister for the Malays? I think the more appropriate question would be does Najib have much choice in the matter?

Gerakan, a Chinese based party in the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional, is making statements that give an impression they are no longer on the same page with Najib.

DAP, another Chinese based party in the opposition coalition, Pakatan Rakyat (or Pakatan Rakyat 2.0), is asking MCA, a Chinese party, to leave Barisan Nasional and join the vote of no confidence against Najib next month.

Lim Kit Siang said today that they need at least 40 Barisan Nasional MPs to join the vote of no confidence so that Najib can be ousted from office next month.

Dr Mahathir, on the other hand, said that Najib has bought off all the UMNO leaders. So that would mean the 40 or so Barisan Nasional MPs that they need would have to come from the ranks of the non-Malays.

Political analyst after political analyst has written over the last two years that Barisan Nasional no longer has the support of the Chinese. Even Malay analysts have said the same thing, as had Dr Mahathir and many other UMNO leaders. In fact, this is why Dr Mahathir wants Najib ousted, so that Barisan Nasional can win back the non-Malay support.

DAP leaders are saying that Najib no longer has the support of the urban  educated Malays. The only Malays who still support Najib are the stupid Malays and the Malays from the kampung in the Malay heartland, say the DAP Chinese.

(So, any Malay who still supports Najib and UMNO are either stupid or have been bought off with BR1M, etc.)

The message that all and sundry are sending Najib is very clear. Non-Malays no longer support Najib and Umno and expect 90% or more of them to vote opposition in the next general election. Educated and/or urban Malays no longer support Najib and Umno and expect the majority of them to vote opposition in the next general election. The only Malays who still support Najib and Umno are either stupid, country bumpkins who live in the kampung, or Malays who have been bought off by the government.

So where does that leave Najib? What option has he left? He can either resign and allow Dr Mahathir’s proxy to take over or he can try to stay in office with the support of the only people who still support him — the stupid Malays and those country bumpkins from the kampung and those he has bought off with BR1M.

By the way, the popularity ratings for Hungary’s Prime Minister, Viktor Orban, which before this was sagging, has suddenly shot up because he has closed the country’s doors to immigrants and refugees. He wants Hungary for Hungarians just like Trump wants America for Americans. It is a fine line indeed between nationalism and racism.



Of Bersih 4.0 and Himpunan 16915

September 21, 2015

COMMENT: It is clear that Dr. Bakri is up to speed on political developments in Malaysia. He writesdin merican at GW with clarity and concern about the challenges we face as a nation. Yes, as a people and a nation, we have matured. Why not?

We did not get to be 58 years old for nothing. We got to where we are today, despite Najib and his boss, Rosmah Mansor because we refuse to be provoked by racist statements from UMNO and by the bigotry of PAS. But we are now caught in a situation where the Malays are scared of their own shadow; they are being led by a bunch of corrupt, self serving, greedy, and irresponsible leaders like Najib Tun Razak and Zahid Hamidi.

Only Malays can deal with this Malay disease, and for that to happen we need new leaders in Malay polity. Face it. Najib and his cohorts are damaged goods.They spread toxicity and hatred, and divide us. A House divided cannot remain whole and stand. I wonder what people in other parts of the world do with diseased chicken?

We cannot allow fascist Malays among us to spoil what we have tried to build. Both the current Malay leadership and followership cannot be allowed destroy racial harmony. In stead, we should take the initiative to work for peace and harmonious relations with our neighbours in our respective residential areas. It is time for us to come together again.

Let us not allow self serving politicians and their stooges to dictate our national agenda and make Malaysia into an international pariah. We must work hard for Malaysia and stop being free riders. Is this not the time to be involved in rebuilding our nation? Bystanders, think clearly and accept reality, and that is our leaders and politicians have failed us. We are stakeholders and making Malaysia a better place is our business.  –Din Merican

Of Bersih 4.0 and Himpunan 16915

by Dr. M Bakri Musa, Morgan-Hill, California

RM the first unelected PM

Today we are bereft of such smart, strong and honest leaders. Instead we are cursed with an abundance of the pseudo-towering variety. Like Hang Tuah of yore, they are corrupt, incompetent, and obsessed with sucking up to their superiors, the Sultans as well as sultan wannabes. These leaders do not bring us closer; they would rather divide us so as to maintain their positions.Najib personifies this type of leadership.–Bakri Musa

Over 46 years ago a largely Chinese group of demonstrators celebrating their party’s electoral victory triggered Malaysia’s worst race riot. Last Wednesday, September 16, 2015, an exclusively Malay rally in predominantly Chinese Petaling Street of Kuala Lumpur triggered only the riot police’s water cannons.

Red Shirt Poster

What flowed on Petaling Street last Wednesday was clear water, not red blood as in 1969. There was also minimal property damage (except for loss of business) and no loss of life. That is significant; that is progress.

Malaysia has come a long way since 1969, the current shrill race hysteria notwithstanding. However leaders, political and non-political, Malays as well as non-Malays, are still trapped in their time-warped racial mentality of the 1960s. They still view the nation’s race dynamics primarily as Malays versus non-Malays.

That is understandable as the horrific memories of that 1969 race tragedy, as well as the much earlier and more brutal Bintang Tiga reign of terror, had been seared into the collective Malaysian consciousness, permanently warping our national perception.

The challenge today is less the risk of inter-racial conflagration of the 1969 variety, more a Malay civil war similar to what is now happening in the Arab world and what has happened on the Korean Peninsula. Last Wednesday’s red-shirt rally illustrates this point.

While the earlier and visibly non-Malay Bersih 4.0 demonstrations had considerable Malay support, including from such luminaries as Tun Dr. Mahathir and National Laureate Dato” Samad Said, the exclusively Malay red-shirted Himpunan Rakyat Bersatu drew condemnations from many Malays, leaders and otherwise.

Bersih Malays

The spokesperson of f the Malay NGO Group of 25, Dato’Noor Farida, contemptuously dismissed the red shirts as “rent-a-mob crowd.” As a former diplomat I would have expected her to be, well, a bit diplomatic and try to heal the division, not add to it.

The fact that these supposedly enlightened Malay leaders saw fit to condemn and not try to at least understand the aspirations and frustrations of those red-shirted protestors underscores my contention.

Make no mistake. Ethnic and racial conflicts are still a tragic reality today in much of the world, even in the enlightened West. Witness the reaction in Western Europe to the current flood of non-European refugees. Only a few months ago America went through another of its all-too-frequent wrenching race riots in Ferguson, Missouri, a century and a half following Reconstruction and over half a century after the adoption of the Civil Rights Act.

In the Middle East, the Jews and Arabs are still at it. Nonetheless and to put things in perspective, more Arabs have been killed in modern times by fellow Arabs than by Jews, or the Jews and the West combined.

Zunar A

That observation underscores the lethality of intra-racial conflicts. The present undercurrent of Malay xenophobia however, blinds us to this new emerging and far more dangerous reality.

This peril is amplified and abetted by the glaring deficit in our community today of a buffering body or mediating mechanism to bridge and heal the divisions within us. While our traditional ethics and culture had served us well in the past, our pseudo or culup modernity has destroyed those pristine values.

Consider that when the British imposed the Malayan Union Treaty with the acquiescence of our Sultans, Malays (except for our sultans of course) were united in opposing it. Our grandparents expressed their disagreement and displeasure with our sultans in our traditional halus (subtle) ways – by demonstrating our loyalty publicly. That mass display prevented our Sultans from attending the inauguration of what would have been the first British Governor of Malaya. The protest was so subtle that our sultans missed the message. Bless the British, they did not.

Back then we were blessed with “towering personalities” like Dato Onn Jaafar (Grandfather of our Defense Minister, Kris rattling Hishamuddin Hussein). His courage led him to defy his own Sultan in the tradition of Hang Jebat, to the point that he (Onn) was once labeled a derhaka (traitor) and banished to Singapore.

Zahid Hamidi--Malay RightsA Leader of the Pseudo-T0wering Variety

Today we are bereft of such smart, strong and honest leaders. Instead we are cursed with an abundance of the pseudo-towering variety. Like Hang Tuah of yore, they are corrupt, incompetent, and obsessed with sucking up to their superiors, the sultans as well as sultan wannabes. These leaders do not bring us closer; they would rather divide us so as to maintain their positions.Najib personifies this type of leadership.

One expects our commonality of Islam to bind us. Far from it! Islam and its institutions in Malaysia have failed miserably on this front. Instead of bringing us together, Islam divides us, mocking our Koran and the teachings of our Prophet.

Hadi and Harun DinMalaysia’s Top Mullahs

Our muftis could not even agree as to what is halal and haram. Our government-issued ulamas could not say enough kind words on UMNO leaders, even blessing their corrupt deeds, all in the name of Islam! Meanwhile those aligned with PAS would have us believe that not voting for PAS would doom us to eternal hellfire.

In many villagers there are separate mosques for PAS and UMNO followers. Even funerals and marriages have been boycotted in the name of Islam.This religious fissure goes deep. The intolerance of a hijab-clad Muslimah for her tudung-free sisters goes beyond attire.

There are other equally dangerous fissures. There are those who consider English fluency an asset and strive hard to acquire that for themselves and their children. Others view that as denigrating our national language and culture, an act of treason no less. Again, that reflects the profound differences in our worldview. These fault lines are fast converging. Given their proper alignment and timing, they could all explode simultaneously, with catastrophic consequences to all, Malays as well as non-Malays.

I am less concerned with the differences between non-Malay yellow-shirters and there were Malays too) and Malay red shirts, rather between yellow-shirted and red-shirted Malays. The latter division is becoming increasingly irreconcilable and more dangerous. Yet they share some common elements beyond race and faith. Both recognize and value the rights of citizens to demonstrate publicly and or otherwise petition their grievances to the government.

Yes, both have a lot to learn about public demonstrations. They are not alone. Even the University of California is still grappling with the issue of where to draw the line between freedom of speech and intolerance. Barisan, specifically UMNO, must appreciate and address the concerns of Bersih if it hopes to win the next election and then govern without much harassment.

Likewise Pakatan, specifically DAP, must not dismiss the apprehensions and frustrations of the Himpunan Group. Those red-shirted Malays may be crude in expressing their frustrations nonetheless their concerns are legitimate.

The shrill offensive cries of Tanah Melayu and Balek Tongsan are but emotional outbursts of those who feel marginalized and helpless. Their emotions preclude them from seeing beyond. If all the pendatangs were to leave and Malaysia to become exclusively Tanah Melayu, who would fix those Mat Rempits’ motorcycles, defend them in courts, or sell them smart phones at affordable prices?

Diversity is MalsysiaStrength in Diversity

Bersih and Himpunan Merah need to appreciate each other’s positions, and then help solve or at least ameliorate those differences. To Himpunan, Bersih’s criticisms of the UMNO government are seen as belittling Malay leadership specifically and the Malay race generally. To Bersih, if only the government and UMNO leaders were to be a wee bit more competent and a whole lot less corrupt, the plight of Malays generally and those red-shirters in particular would be much better.

It does not take much effort to appreciate the other side’s point of view. I was impressed with the recent incident at Bayan Lepas when a red shirt leader came to disrupt a Bersih 4 gathering. The quick and counter intuitive thinking of the organizer had that individual address the gathering. Thus instead of confrontation, there was communication. That is the sort of gestures that need to be done and encouraged.

Ahmad Maslan at Red Shirt event


For Malays, we first need to build bridges, not dig trenches within our own community. As for the offensive cries of pendatang and Balek Tongsan, Zunar’s latest cartoon encapsulates my point well, and with lots of humor. It depicts a Mat Rempit begging an Ah Peck to fix his (Mat’s) motorcycle.

Intra-Malay fissure is not just a Malay problem. Malaysia cannot be stable if its largest racial entity is fractured and fractious.

‘Well done, Sept 16 protesters for peaceful rally’–Najib Razak

September 19, 2015

Dear Mr. Prime Minister,

The Racist Naib“We are not like the Opposition when they do street rallies. Malays know the country’s laws”.

Enough of your spins and lies. You expect decent and peace-loving Malaysians to buy your version of what happened at the September 16 Red Shirt rally. The Malays are not being threatened. It is you. Most of us want you to resign because your corruption, dishonesty and incompetence are undermining confidence and have destroyed public trust.

You are now risking everything  in your desperation to cling to power which you have abused with impunity. You play politics of race and religion, even  when you know that you are  exploiting the insecurities of the Red Shirt Malays.

Soon you will be at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to deliver a speech. What will tell you the UNGA and the world? Another pack of lies? That Malaysia is a moderate Muslim country? That Malaysia is an oasis of racial harmony and that the rm2.6 billion in your personal bank account is a donation from some generous imaginary source? That 1MDB is a model of probity, good management and should be emulated? Nobody believes you except perhaps the man who occupies 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington DC, NW and golfing buddy, Mr Obama.

The two videos below tell it all. The people who support you are truly delusional. Malaysians are not the enemy. You are our worst nightmare  And you are their enemy.–Din Merican.

 ‘Well done, Sept 16 protesters for peaceful rally’

Prime Minister Najib Abdul Razak thanked all who attended the ‘Himpunan Rakyat Bersatu’, saying the red shirts have done very well to gather peacefully and without any provocation. Najib said there are no sighting of racist signboards or provocative acts such as stomping on Opposition leaders’ pictures.

“The Police told me that the rally showed that Malays respected the law and convened peacefully. Congratulations to everyone who attended the 16 September rally,” he told 15,000 silat (Malay martial arts) practitioners who convened at the National Silat Merdeka Gathering at Dataran Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur, tonight (September 18).


“Are there any banners promoting hatred to other races? Are there any pictures of opposition leaders that were stomped? We are not like the Opposition when they do street rallies. Malays know the country’s laws,” he added.

Najib did not mention the standoff between the red shirts and the Federal Reserve Unit (FRU) on Petaling Street at the same gathering. The FRU had used water cannon to disperse the crowd; two Police officers and a protester were also injured in the commotion.

Bersih ‘has gone overboard’

In his fiery 20-minute speech, Najib also demonised election watchdog Bersih 2.0, referring to their four rallies which he said was a ‘slap’ on the Malay face. “They slapped us once, twice, three times, that’s fine. But when they slap us for the fourth time, they have gone overboard. Malays too have the rights. Malays too can show that we can stand up when our dignity is torn apart and our leaders mocked and shamed,” he said.

At the event, Najib also congratulated all the silat practitioners, saying they are among his supporters who are willing to fight to the death in upholding his government.He also announced that silat is the official martial art of the country, and promised that the practice would be brought to all government agencies and universities.

“We are willing to die, not as suicide bombers. We are willing to die because this is the legitimate government to uphold this country. We believe in this government,” he said to the cheering crowd.

Obama’s Discredited Malaysian Golf Buddy–Najib Razak

September 18, 2015

Obama’s Discredited Malaysian Golf Buddy–Najib Razak

by John

Today, Najib has become almost an international pariah, bogged down in two massive Zimbabwean-level scandals – one over the disappearance of billions of dollars from the 1Malaysia Development Berhad fund and another over how nearly US$700 million ended up in his personal accounts at AmBank in Kuala Lumpur, then disappeared out again to unnamed accounts overseas without explanation.–John Berthelsen

U.S. President Barack REUTERS/Hugh Gentry

U.S. President Barack Obama and Malaysia’s Najib Razak in Hawaii on December 24, 2014 REUTERS/Hugh Gentry

When Barack Obama’s administration began planning the US president’s November trip to Asia to attend various summits and deal with a number of important issues including the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade agreement, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum summit in the Philippines and the annual ASEAN summit in Malaysia, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak was a favorite of Obama’s, a White House visitor and January golfing partner.

Today, Najib has become almost an international pariah, bogged down in two massive Zimbabwean-level scandals – one over the disappearance of billions of dollars from the 1Malaysia Development Berhad fund and another over how nearly US$700 million ended up in his personal accounts at AmBank in Kuala Lumpur, then disappeared out again to unnamed accounts overseas without explanation.

More bad news

Najib’s international reputation was severely tarnished again this week with a report on the Al Jazeera news network raising questions anew over the notorious 2006 murder of Mongolian translator and party girl Altantuya Shaariibuu. The program, which got Australian journalist Mary Ann Jolley kicked out of the country as she was reporting it, tied text messages by convicted murderer Sirul Azhar Umar, currently held in Australia, to the prime minister’s office. Sirul appeared to be asking for a bribe to shut up and was reported as saying “I won’t bring down the Prime Minister.”

That leaves Obama with a problem. At all of the meetings he will have during his November trip, his former golfing partner will be a conspicuous presence.

The US Embassy in Kuala Lumpur, in an email, said only that the White House has not announced a visit by President Obama to Malaysia.

“I know for sure that Washington is concerned right now about what John R. Malottto do or how to handle Najib and the November trip. Since the infamous golf game, so many things have happened, and as a US government official you would have to be living on another planet – or an alternate universe – not to know what is going on in Malaysia today, and the truth about Najib,” said John Malott, who served as Ambassador to Malaysia from 1996 to 1998 and who has become one of the prime minister’s loudest international critics.

“So my sense is yes, there has been a major shift in Washington thinking about Najib. And their number one concern now is how to handle the November visit. They need to protect Obama. At the end of the day, Washington, as always, has two goals – foreign policy, how to advance American interests abroad (in ASEAN), and two, domestic – how to protect the president politically from any criticism here at home.”

The attitude of the administration in Washington towards Najib – at least to this point – is puzzling, and misguided. While he has cut a polished figure on the international stage, with impeccably tailored suits and a cultured English accent, the US Embassy in Kuala Lumpur has been warning about Najib since at least the 22-month trial of the two convicted murderers of Altantuya, which ended in 2009.

Then-Ambassador James Keith and his staff sent detailed cables to the State Department in Washington – obtained by WikiLeaks in 2011 and reported by Asia Sentinel – that indicated the embassy staff was closely following the trial of the killers and frequently discussed whether Najib was connected to the killing.

The diplomats, like much of the public, also speculated that the trial was being deliberately delayed and feared what one diplomatic cable calls “prosecutorial misconduct” that was being politically manipulated. The embassy officials based their concerns on sources within the prosecution, government and political opposition.

US Ambassador (Designate) to Malaysia Paul W. Jones

 Former US Ambassador to Malaysia Dato’ (?)Paul W. Jones

Ambassador Paul Jones, who followed Keith, praised Najib, however, and was so enthusiastic about the country that he was given a “datukship,” a low-level honorific in the country’s convoluted system of quasi-royalty. That is technically a violation of the US Constitution, which prohibits such awards from foreign governments. A steadily rising diplomat, Jones emphasized strengthening ties between the two countries. He played Sherpa to the visits of both Secretary of State Former FHilary Clinton and Defense Secretary Robert Gates to Malaysia. He has continued his rise through the ranks of the State Department bureaucracy, now serving as principal deputy assistant secretary.


Thus the warnings of Keith, Malott and the current ambassador, Joseph Yun, apparently fell on the deaf ears of Obama, who believed Najib, who has frequently spoken in Washington and at the UN as the head of a moderate Muslim nation, was a great reformer.

It has become clear that he isn’t and wasn’t, in extensive and unmissable stories in the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal, the US’s most respected newspapers, about the extensive and hugely expensive property holdings Najib’s family has in California and New York, and the stories about 1MDB.

In the latest, the Wall Street Journal pointed out just a week ago on Sept. 8 that while 1MDB’s financial statements and the Malaysian auditor general reported that a collateral payment had been made to an Abu Dhabi investment fund, the Abu Dhabi government never got the money.

Problem leader

This all presents Obama with the dilemma of how to back away from a man he embraced as a friend, one whose country he needs badly to accomplish American goals in the South China Sea, including one of the linchpins of the Obama presidency, his so-called pivot to Asia to counteract Chinese influence.

“The question is – how can they distance themselves from Najib personally, while still achieving their goals in November?,” Malott said.

Najib leaves on September 23 to return to the world stage, first on a trip to London where he is said to be seeking arms deals at the London Arms Fair. Hishammuddin Hussein, his cousin and Defense Minister, is already there, accompanied by defense officials and having rented 30 rooms at the Churchill Hyatt Hotel for his entourage. Najib is expected to nip off quietly, leaving a nation in crisis. After his turn at the UN, he is scheduled to go to Italy, where his wife, Rosmah Mansor, is staging an Islamic fashion show in Milan.

Najib has tried indefatigably to reverse the bad blood with western nations generated by former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. He is expected to appear in New York on September 25 for the opening of the United Nations General Assembly. The reception he gets, especially from US diplomats, will tell a lot about what happens in November.

John Kerry

In August, US Secretary of State John Kerry obviously held his nose and upgraded Malaysia’s status on human trafficking, to the astonishment of many human rights organizations. The upgrade was widely considered the price the US had to pay for Malaysia’s cooperation on TPP and other issues.

But even since August, the publicity over corruption and the 2006 murder has spread wider. It will be interesting to see if the US will hold its nose again during the Asia trip. “Better send Kerry instead,” said a Malaysian observer.

Crass Racism on Malaysia Day

September 18, 2015

Crass Racism displayed before the world on Malaysia Day

by Azrul Mohd Khalib

As we have seen this past Malaysia Day, the disease of racism is very much alive and well in this country.

WARUNG01The Red Shirts Hooligans

Ahmad Maslan at Red Shirt eventAhmad Maslan–The Politician from Johor

Dato Jamal Md Yunos,The Ikan Bakar Racist

Najib and Rosmah2The Mute Najib and his Boss Rosmah

Obama and Michelle Bersih 4.0Obama’s Parody

We have seen how bad the malignancy has been and how it continues to be kept alive and spread over generations despite more than 50 years of nationhood.

What was promised during the formation of Malaysia and encapsulated in both the Federal Constitution and Rukun Negara, was that as a people, we would be free to be what we could be. We would live together in harmony and in fair partnership. Together we would succeed as opposed to being separate states. That we would be unified as one people with a shared future, as Malaysians.

Tunku Abdul Rahman laid out this promise: “We are all Malaysians. This is the bond that unites us. Let us always remember that unity is our fundamental strength as a people and a nation.” He would have cried if he had seen what we all saw during the rally of the red T-shirts.

In different parts of the world, both in developed and developing countries, people struggle to throw off the yoke of racism. In Malaysia, as we have seen, there are some among us who not only embrace it but also seek to celebrate and justify the unjustifiable, doing all that they can, including misusing religion, to do so.

Not too long ago, Malaysia stood proudly among the coalition of nations which boycotted and sanctioned South Africa in opposition to legalised racial discrimination or apartheid. This country was in fact at the forefront and played a significant role in the anti-apatheid campaign. In 1990, Nelson Mandela came to Malaysia and thanked the Malaysian people for their support to end racial segregation in South Africa. Have we forgotten that part of our proud history?

The freedom of speech guaranteed under Article 10 of the Federal Constitution of Malaysia does not include hate speech designed to incite racial hatred. Hate speech is speech which offends, threatens, or insults individuals or groups, based on race, ethnicity, colour, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, disability, or other traits. Hate speech is not free speech.

Much of what was said in speeches by speakers at Jalan Conlay, Padang Merbok and Petaling Street, screamed out by demonstrators and written on banners and placards shown throughout the Himpunan Maruah Melayu/ Himpunan Rakyat Bersatu/ #Merah169 was hate speech. Hate speech clothed in the words of racial supremacy, dominance, violence and discrimination.

How much longer should we be slaves to racism? Because that is what racism is: slavery. Chains which the penjajah or our former colonial masters saw fit to fashion around the different peoples of this country with the intent to divide and rule. It has been 58 years since independence and rather than casting aside the yoke of bondage, those in power have renewed and sought to cast more shackles aimed to widen the racial divide and exploit social and economic disparity.

Decades of economic practices based on race has bred an irrational sense of entitlement. Enough of this attitude of entitlement from people who would seek to benefit or expect preferential treatment simply due to their race or religion rather than through merit and hard work. The insolent demands that the profits from Petaling Street be shared with Malays for no other reason than that was “Tanah Melayu” exposed one of real motives behind #Merah169 which was greed. Let’s be clear about that.

We have serious problems to solve in this country, and we need serious people to solve them.Those who stood on that stage and incited and hurled abuses on the KL streets that day are not the least bit interested in solving them. They are interested in only two things, namely making you afraid of those problems, both real and imagined, and telling you who’s to blame for it.

KJ and NajibUMNO Racists

To date, we have heard nothing from the leadership of this country condemning the blatant racism, bigotry and naked hatred on display during the #Merah169 demonstration. Why?

If UMNO continues to justify the existence and practice of race-based politics in this manner, through threats, fear mongering and intimidation, then I would argue that this is a party that has ceased to be relevant for the future of this country.

For the future of this nation cannot and must not continue to be shaped and determined by race and the struggle for racial superiority and dominance. It must be based on a common vision and purpose of how we see ourselves as Malaysians.

But honestly, it is too easy to shift blame onto our elected leaders when most of the responsibility really lies with us. After all, our leaders are representative of our respective communities.

Building a better society and nation begins with us. For too long we have allowed and tolerated slurs and arrogant statements such as “ini Tanah Melayu, bumi Melayu”, “we allow them to live and work here, they should be thankful to us”, “kamu kaum pendatang/ penumpang”, “Cina babi” to be directed to fellow Malaysians. We have also allowed racial discrimination to be a way of life. For example, the requirement for applicants to be “Chinese only” is a common line in job advertisements.

Meanwhile those who would take advantage of such tensions are continuously inventing and playing out non-existent racial issues, and instilling fear, hatred and anger against others of different ethnicity.

This must stop. After all, we reap what we sow. If this vicious cycle is to stop, we must play our part.

It does no one any good for us to keep our heads down and hope that the racists and bigots do not notice or disturb us. On Malaysia Day and the days before that, too many saw the gathering of racists and bigots and were intimidated, frightened or terrorised into silence and inaction. They kept their heads down and stayed home.

But not all did so. In Shah Alam, more than one thousand Malaysians from different ethnicities and religions walked together in a show of unity. In the KLCC park, a small group of people braved the red tide and had a picnic to celebrate the country’s birthday. In Bangsar, a few hundred people came together to rediscover Malaysian cultural traditions, ethnic food and dances in a festival of colours and music. Across the country, people defied the racists in their own way.

If we are to build a better society and a country for all, we must stand up and speak out for each other and contribute to a new narrative. A narrative shaped by our voices and not those that are shrill with hatred, bigotry and prejudice. We must deny the cynics who tell us to settle for what we have and not aspire for anything more. That nothing can change.

Last Wednesday, we saw how ugly racism can look like. But we have also seen some of the best of the Malaysian people. Stand up and speak out against racism.


Philosophy Course 605 at The University of Cambodia–Readings on Plato and The Greeks

September 17, 2015

For Philosophy Course 605 at The University of Cambodia-Readings  on Plato and The Greeks –led by Adjunct Professor Din Merican, Tech Sen School

Socrates, Plato and Aristotle

 by Geoff Haselhurst, Karene Howie

This is the latest Plato introduction – based on two principles for writing on the internet – truth and simplicity!

Read the Plato quotes – Plato was brilliant, astute, charming, amusing, profound, practical, sensible, logical, enquiring, seeking, exploring by considering the simple and obvious.

Plato Quotes on Philosophy Truth and Reality

And isn’t it a bad thing to be deceived about the truth, and a good thing to know what the truth is? For I assume that by knowing the truth you mean knowing things as they really are. (Plato)

The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge. (Plato)

Truthfulness. He will never willingly tolerate an untruth, but will hate it as much as he loves truth. … And is there anything more closely connected with wisdom than truth? (Plato)

What is at issue is the conversion of the mind from the twilight of error to the truth, that climb up into the real world which we shall call true philosophy. (Plato)

The object of knowledge is what exists and its function to know about reality. (Plato)

One trait in the philosopher’s character we can assume is his love of the knowledge that reveals eternal reality, the realm unaffected by change and decay. He is in love with the whole of that reality, and will not willingly be deprived even of the most insignificant fragment of it – just like the lovers and men of ambition we described earlier on. (Plato)

Plato the Philosopher - And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. Plato the Philosopher

I have great affection for Plato, who is without doubt one of the greatest philosophers of the past 2,500 years. Thus it is unfortunate that many people imagine our post-modern society to have gained such knowledge that the Ancient Greek Philosophers are now irrelevant. In fact the opposite is true. As Bertrand Russell observed (History of Western Philosophy), it was the Ancient Greek Philosophers who first discovered and discussed the fundamental Principles of Philosophy, and most significantly, little has been added to their knowledge since. As Einstein wrote:

Somebody who only reads newspapers and at best books of contemporary authors looks to me like an extremely near-sighted person who scorns eyeglasses. He is completely dependent on the prejudices and fashions of his times, since he never gets to see or hear anything else. And what a person thinks on his own without being stimulated by the thoughts and experiences of other people is even in the best case rather paltry and monotonous. There are only a few enlightened people with a lucid mind and style and with good taste within a century. What has been preserved of their work belongs among the most precious possessions of mankind. We owe it to a few writers of antiquity (Plato, Aristotle, etc.) that the people in the Middle Ages could slowly extricate themselves from the superstitions and ignorance that had darkened life for more than half a millennium. Nothing is more needed to overcome the modernist’s snobbishness. (Albert Einstein, 1954)

It is therefore both interesting and important to consider the foundations which caused the blossoming of Ancient Greek Philosophy. First and foremost was the realisation that ALL IS ONE, as Nietzsche writes:

Greek philosophy seems to begin with a preposterous fancy, with the proposition that water is the origin and mother-womb of all things. Is it really necessary to stop there and become serious? Yes, and for three reasons: firstly, because the preposition does enunciate something about the origin of things; secondly, because it does so without figure and fable; thirdly and lastly, because it contained, although only in the chrysalis state, the idea :everything is one. … That which drove him (Thales) to this generalization was a metaphysical dogma, which had its origin in a mystic intuition and which together with the ever renewed endeavors to express it better, we find in all philosophies- the proposition: everything is one! (Friedrich Nietzsche, The Greeks)

Further, the Ancient Greeks realised that Motion (Flux / Activity / Change) was central to existence and reality, as Aristotle writes:

The first philosophy (Metaphysics) is universal and is exclusively concerned with primary substance. … And here we will have the science to study that which is just as that which is, both in its essence and in the properties which, just as a thing that is, it has. (Aristotle, 340BC)
The entire preoccupation of the physicist is with things that contain within themselves a principle of movement and rest. And to seek for this is to seek for the second kind of principle, that from which comes the beginning of the change. (Aristotle, 340BC)

Only recently (Wolff, 1986 – Haselhurst, 1997) has it been possible, with the discovery of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter (WSM), to unite these ideas with modern Physics, Philosophy and Metaphysics. And let me first say that it is ironic that the main problem for human knowledge also came from the Ancient Greeks, with their conception of matter as discrete Atoms (Democritus, Lucretius). Unfortunately, Physics took the path of the atomists (Newton, Faraday, Maxwell, Lorentz) and this led to the creation of ‘Forces / Fields’ (generated by particles) to explain how matter interacted with other discrete matter at-a-distance in Space.

It seems that many people believe that Reality / Physics is too complex for them to possibly understand (and I suspect that Physicists enjoy this reputation as being the ‘high priests’ who comprehend such complex things). In fact the opposite is true – Truth is ultimately simple because Truth comes from Reality (as Plato correctly realised) which must be founded on One thing. And there is nothing more simple than One Thing. (This explains why Philosophy is also known as the discovery of the obvious!)

When you read the quotes from Plato below, you will also find Plato’s ideas to be very simple. This reflects his greatness as a philosopher, and partly explains why his work has endured for thousands of years. To me, it is his realisation that philosophy is fundamentally important to humanity, that without philosophy, without truth, there can be no wisdom – which leaves humanity blind and the future treacherous. Reason tells me that Reality has been discovered, that the source of all truth and wisdom has finally been found. And in our currently troubled times there is no more important knowledge than true knowledge of reality – of what it truly means to ‘Know Thyself’ as the foundation for living wisely and ensuring survival.

Plato - I don't know anything that gives me greater pleasure, or profit either, than talking or listening to philosophy. Plato ‘The Republic’ Quotes

I don’t know anything that gives me greater pleasure, or profit either, than talking or listening to philosophy. But when it comes to ordinary conversation, such as the stuff you talk about financiers and the money market, well, I find it pretty tiresome personally, and I feel sorry that my friends should think they’re being very busy when they’re really doing absolutely nothing. Of course, I know your idea of me: you think I’m just a poor unfortunate, and I shouldn’t wonder if your right. But then I don’t THINK that you’re unfortunate – I know you are. (Plato)

Plato is an astute and important philosopher, who writes beautifully and with great power and elegance on Truth and Reality. His work is still profoundly important in today’s Postmodern world, and can be easily understood due to its simplicity of language and engaging style of dialogue. The following quotes are taken from Plato’s great work The Republic, and speak grandly for themselves, thus I largely leave them as they are, with little commentary or analysis (though I of course hope that you will read them with the Wave Structure of Matter in mind).

Ancient Greek Philosophy - Plato the philosopher Plato Quotes on the Understanding of New Ideas

We are like people looking for something they have in their hands all the time; we’re looking in all directions except at the thing we want, which is probably why we haven’t found it.(Plato, 380BC)

‘That is the story. Do you think there is any way of making them believe it?” Not in the first generation’, he said, ‘but you might succeed with the second and later generations.’ (Plato, 380BC)

‘We will ask the critics to be serious for once, and remind them that it was not so long ago that the Greeks thought – as most of the barbarians still think – that it was shocking and ridiculous for men to be seen naked. When the Cretans, and later the Spartans, first began to take exercise naked, wasn’t there plenty of material for the wit of the comedians of the day?’
‘There was indeed’

‘But when experience showed them that it was better to strip than wrap themselves up, what reason had proved best ceased to look absurd to the eye. Which shows how idle it is to think anything ridiculous except what is wrong.’ (Plato, 380BC)

Plato the Philosopher - And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. Plato on Truth and Reality

And isn’t it a bad thing to be deceived about the truth, and a good thing to know what the truth is? For I assume that by knowing the truth you mean knowing things as they really are. (Plato, 380BC)

The philosopher is in love with truth, that is, not with the changing world of sensation, which is the object of opinion, but with the unchanging reality which is the object of knowledge. (Plato, 380BC)

Truthfulness. He will never willingly tolerate an untruth, but will hate it as much as he loves truth… And is there anything more closely connected with wisdom than truth? (Plato, 380BC)

Then may we not fairly plead in reply that our true lover of knowledge naturally strives for truth, and is not content with common opinion, but soars with undimmed and unwearied passion till he grasps the essential nature of things with the mental faculty fitted to do so, that is, with the faculty which is akin to reality, and which approaches and unites with it, and begets intelligence and truth as children, and is only released from travail when it has thus reached knowledge and true life and satisfaction? (Plato, 380BC)

What is at issue is the conversion of the mind from the twilight of error to the truth, that climb up into the real world which we shall call true philosophy. (Plato, 380BC)

The object of knowledge is what exists and its function to know about reality. (Plato, 380BC)

And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. (Plato, 380BC)

When the mind’s eye rests on objects illuminated by truth and reality, it understands and comprehends them, and functions intelligently; but when it turns to the twilight world of change and decay, it can only form opinions, its vision is confused and its beliefs shifting, and it seems to lack intelligence. (Plato, 380BC)

‘But surely “blind” is just how you would describe men who have no true knowledge of reality, and no clear standard in their mind to refer to, as a painter refers to his model, and which they can study closely before they start laying down rules about what is fair or right or good where they are needed, or maintaining, as Guardians, any rules that already exist.’ ‘Yes, blind is just about what they are’ (Plato, 380BC)

One trait in the philosopher’s character we can assume is his love of the knowledge that reveals eternal reality, the realm unaffected by change and decay. He is in love with the whole of that reality, and will not willingly be deprived even of the most insignificant fragment of it – just like the lovers and men of ambition we described earlier on. (Plato, 380BC)

Ancient Greek Philosophy - Plato the philosopher Plato Education Quotes

…for the object of education is to teach us to love beauty. (Plato, 380BC)

And once we have given our community a good start, the process will be cumulative. By maintaining a sound system of education you produce citizens of good character, and citizens of sound character, with the advantage of a good education, produce in turn children better than themselves and better able to produce still better children in their turn, as can be seen with animals. (Plato, 380BC)

‘.. It is in education that bad discipline can most easily creep in unobserved,’ he replied.

‘Yes,’ I agreed, ‘ because people don’t treat it seriously there, and think no harm can come of it.’

‘It only does harm,’ he said, ‘because it makes itself at home and gradually undermines morals and manners; from them it invades business dealings generally, and then spreads into the laws and constitution without any restraint, until it has made complete havoc of private and public life.’

‘ And when men who aren’t fit to be educated get an education they don’t deserve, are not the thoughts and opinions they produce fairly called sophistry, without a legitimate idea or any trace of true wisdom among them?’

‘ The first thing our artist must do,’ I replied, ‘ – and it’s not easy – is to take human society and human habits and wipe them clean out, to give himself a clean canvas. For our philosophic artist differs from all others in being unwilling to start work on an individual or a city, or draw out laws, until he is given, or has made himself, a clean canvas.’ (Plato, 380BC)

‘ Because a free man ought not to learn anything under duress. Compulsory physical exercise does no harm to the body, but compulsory learning never sticks to the mind.’


‘Then don’t use compulsion,’ I said to him, ‘ but let your children’s lessons take the form of play. You will learn more about their natural abilities that way.’ (Plato, 380BC)

For we soon reap the fruits of literature in life, and prolonged indulgence in any form of literature in life leaves its mark on the moral nature of man, affecting not only the mind but physical poise and intonation. (p134 R)

‘It is not only to the poets therefore that we must issue orders requiring them to represent good character in their poems or not to write at all; we must issue similar orders to all artists and prevent them from portraying bad character, ill discipline, meanness, or ugliness in painting, sculpture, architecture, or any work of art, and if they are unable to comply they must be forbidden to practice their art. We shall thus prevent our guardians being brought up among representations of what is evil, and so day by day and little by little, by feeding as it were in an unhealthy pasture, insensibly doing themselves grave psychological damage. Our artists and craftsmen must be capable of perceiving the real nature of what is beautiful, and then our young men, living as it were in a good climate, will benefit because all the works of art they see and hear influence them for good, like the breezes from some healthy country with what is rational and right.’

‘That would indeed be the best way to bring them up.’

‘And that, my dear Glaucon,’ I said,’ is why this stage of education is crucial. For rhythm and harmony penetrate deeply into the mind and have a most powerful effect on it, and if education is good, bring balance and fairness, if it is bad, the reverse. (p142, 401 R)

‘Then I must surely be right in saying that we shall not be properly educated ourselves, nor will the guardians whom we are training, until we can recognise the qualities of discipline, courage, generosity, greatness of mind, and others akin to them, as well as their opposites in all their manifestations’. (p143, 402 R)

Plato - I don't know anything that gives me greater pleasure, or profit either, than talking or listening to philosophy. Plato on the Mind

Do we learn with one part of us, feel angry with another, and desire the pleasures of eating and sex with another? Or do we employ our mind as a whole when our energies are employed in any of these ways? (Plato, 380BC)

We can call the reflective element in the mind the reason, and the element with which it feels hunger and thirst, and the agitations of sex and other desires, the irrational appetite – an element closely connected with pleasure and satisfaction. (Plato, 380BC)

‘So the reason ought to rule, having the ability and foresight to act for the whole, and the spirit ought to obey and support it. And this concord between them is effected, as we said, by a combination of intellectual and physical training, which tunes up the reason by intellectual training and tones down the crudeness of natural high spirits by harmony and rhythm.’


‘When these two elements have been brought up and trained to their proper function, they must be put in charge of appetite, which forms the greater part of each man’s make-up and is naturally insatiable. They must prevent taking its fill of the so-called physical pleasures, for otherwise it will get too large and strong to mind its own business and will try to subject and control the other elements, which it has no right to do, and so wreck life entirely.’ (Plato, 380BC)

Then let us be content with the terms we used earlier on for the four divisions of our line – knowledge, reason, belief and illusion. The last two we class together as opinion, the first two as intelligence, opinion being concerned with the world of becoming, knowledge with the world of reality. Knowledge stands to opinion as the world of reality does to that of becoming, and intelligence stands to belief and reason to illusion as knowledge stands to opinion. (Plato, 380BC)

Plato the Philosopher - On Illusion Quotations from Plato on Illusion

In the analogy of The Cave, Plato shows the ascent of the mind from illusion to truth and pure philosophy, and the difficulties which accompany its progress.

‘Then think what would happen to them if they were released from their bonds and cured of their delusions. Suppose one of them were let loose, and suddenly compelled to stand up and turn his head and look and walk towards the fire; all actions would be painful and he would be too dazzled to see properly the objects of which he used to see the shadows. So if he was told that what he used to see was mere illusion and that he was now nearer reality and seeing more correctly, because he was turned towards objects that were more real, and if on top of that he were compelled to say what each of the passing objects was when it was pointed out to him, don’t you think he would be at a loss, and think that what he used to see was more real than the objects now being pointed out to him?’

‘ Because he would need to grow accustomed to the light before he could see things in the world outside the cave. First he would find it easiest to look at shadows, next at the reflections of men and other objects in water, and later on at the objects themselves. After that he would find it easier to observe the heavenly bodies and the sky at night than by day, and to look at the light of the moon and stars, rather than at the sun and its light.’

‘ But anyone with any sense,’ I said, ‘will remember that the eyes may be unsighted in two ways, by a transition either from light to darkness or from darkness to light, and that the same distinction applies to the mind. So when he sees a mind confused and unable to see clearly he will not laugh without thinking, but will ask himself whether it has come from a cleaner world and is confused by the unaccustomed darkness, or whether it is dazzled by the stronger light of the clearer world to which it has escaped from its previous ignorance.’

‘ If this is true,’ I continued, ‘ we must reject the conception of education professed by those who say that they can put into the mind knowledge that was not there before – rather as if they could put sight into blind eyes.’

‘It is a claim that is certainly made,’ he said

‘But our argument indicates that this is a capacity which is innate in each man’s mind, and that the faculty by which he learns is like an eye that cannot be turned from darkness to light unless the whole body is turned; in the same way the mind as a whole must be turned away from the world of change until its eyes can bear to look straight at reality, and at the brightest of all realities which we call the Good. Isn’t that so?’ (Plato, 380BC)

Ancient Greek Philosophy - Plato the philosopher Plato on the Importance of Philosophy

The society we have described can never grow into a reality or see the light of day, and there will be no end to the troubles of states, or indeed, my dear Glaucon, of humanity itself, till philosophers are kings in this world, or till those we now call kings and rulers really and truly become philosophers, and political power and philosophy thus come into the same hands, while the many natures now content to follow either to the exclusion of the other are forcibly debarred from doing so. This is what I have hesitated to say so long, knowing what a paradox it would sound; for it is not easy to see that there is no other road to happiness, either for society or the individual. (Plato, 380BC)

…there are some who are naturally fitted for philosophy and political leadership, while the rest should follow their lead and let philosophy alone. (Plato, 380BC)

‘But the man who is ready to taste every form of knowledge, is glad to learn and never satisfied – he’s the man who deserves to be called a philosopher, isn’t he?’ (Plato, 380BC)

‘Then who are the true philosophers?’, he asked

‘Those whose passion is to see the truth.’

‘Suppose the following to be the state of affairs on board a ship or ships. The captain is larger and stronger than any of the crew, but a bit deaf and short-sighted, and doesn’t know much about navigation. The crew is quarreling with each other about how to navigate the ship, each thinking he ought to be at the helm; they know no navigation and cannot say that anyone ever taught it them, or that they spent any time studying it; indeed they say it can’t be taught and are ready to murder any one who says it can. They spend all their time milling around the captain and trying to get him to give them the wheel. If one faction is more successful than another, their rivals may kill them and throw them overboard, lay out the honest captain with drugs and drink, take control of the ship, help themselves to what’s on board, and behave as if they were on a drunken pleasure-cruise. Finally, they reserve their admiration for the man who knows how to lend a hand in controlling the captain by force or fraud; they praise his seamanship and navigation and knowledge of the sea and condemn everyone else as useless. They have no idea that the true navigator must study the seasons of the year, the sky, the stars, the winds and other professional subjects, if he is really fit to control a ship; and they think that it’s quite impossible to acquire professional skill in navigation (quite apart from whether they want it exercised) and that there is no such thing as an art of navigation. In these circumstances aren’t the sailors on any ship bound to regard the true navigator as a gossip and a star-gazer, of no use to them at all?’

‘Yes, they are,’ Adeimantus agreed

‘I think you probably understand, without any explanation, that my illustration is intended to show the present attitude of society towards the true philosopher’ (Plato, 380BC)

And tell him it’s quite true that the best of the philosophers are of no use to their fellows; but that he should blame, not the philosophers, but those who fail to make use of them. (Plato, 380BC)

I feel like standing and applauding when I read Plato, for he is one of the true greats. The early Greeks were exceedingly smart and aware, and they created the system that then led to Aristotle, and his most profound work, ‘The Metaphysics’. Their knowledge lies at the very heart of the Metaphysics of Space and Motion and the Wave Structure of Matter.

Plato the Philosopher - And those whose hearts are fixed on Reality itself deserve the title of Philosophers. Links / Plato, Ancient Greek Philosophy, Philosophers

Metaphysics: Problem of One and the Many – Brief History of Metaphysics and Solutions to the Fundamental Problems of Uniting the; One and the Many, Infinite and the Finite, Eternal and the Temporal, Absolute and Relative, Continuous and Discrete, Simple and Complex, Matter and Universe.

Philosophy: Greek Philosophers – All is One (Space) and Active-Flux (Wave Motion). Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Atomists (Democritus, Lucretius), Socrates, Plato, Epicurus.

Aristotle – On Philosopher Aristotle’s Metaphysics and Physics (Motion). (Aristotle was one of the greatest of the famous philosophers and should be read by all people interested in philosophy and wisdom.)

Socrates – ‘Know Thyself’ – Condemned to death for educating the youth to Philosophy and arguing that people are ignorant of the Truth. Information, Biography – On the Life and Death of Socrates (The Last Days of Socrates by Plato).