January 10, 2019
UiTM should accept non-Bumis for postgraduate studies, says its first head
by Ainaa Aiman
For outstanding contribution in shaping Malaysia’s education landscape through the development of professional education, education reforms and innovation that have resulted in education becoming more accessible to Malaysians.
Tan Sri Dato’ Seri Utama Arshad Ayub was born in Muar, Johor on 15 November, 1928. The oldest child in a modest rubber tapper family, Tan Sri Arshad was raised in an environment of hardship and poverty. He suffered from typhoid, and following the death of his parents, was tasked with the responsibility of raising his four younger siblings. As a poverty-stricken and deprived child living in the decade before the Second World War, the future seemed bleak. Yet through sheer determination, diligence and discipline he overcame great odds to rise above the trials and tribulations of his early life. In fact, it was those difficult early years which were so formative to his subsequent calling as an educator and civil servant. His experience of poverty made him all the more determined to help disadvantaged children overcome their adverse circumstances through education. As he says, “I was exposed to poverty so I understand what poverty is.”
Not one to be easily discouraged, Tan Sri Arshad took on every educational opportunity afforded him to advance and improve his position in life. In 1954 he graduated with a Diploma in Agriculture from the College of Agriculture in Serdang, Selangor. He was awarded the Colonial and Development scholarship in 1953 to study at the University College of Wales Aberystwyth in the United Kingdom, graduating with an Honours degree in Economics and Statistics in 1958. In 1964, Tan Sri Arshad obtained a Diploma in Business Administration from the Management Development Institute in Lausanne, Switzerland (now IMD).
Tan Sri Arshad’s involvement in education began in 1965 as the Principal of the MARA College of Business and Professional Studies. In 1967 Maktab MARA was transformed into Institute Technology MARA (ITM) of which Tan Sri Arshad became the First Director serving with courage and determination from 1965 to 1975. He laid the foundation for the Institut Teknologi MARA (now UiTM) and led one of the most successful education initiatives in the country.
Tasked by the late Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak bin Hussein, with the challenge of remedying the under representation of Bumiputra in the professions, Tan Sri Arshad relinquished well-trodden paths and blazed new trails. He assembled a multiracial team of educationists with the right mix of courage and passion to do things not done before. He told his staff that everyone can be educated. He believed that among the young there are many “late bloomers” who are largely ignored by the prevailing education system.
Tan Sri Arshad played a critical role in UiTM’s formative years by nurturing it with concepts and programmes then unknown and unexplored in the higher education sector in Malaysia. He believed that entry points into tertiary courses should be flexible but exit points must be well regulated. Planning for years ahead, he was the first in the country to introduce courses in applied science, mass communications, business management, architecture, public administration (Plantation Estate Management) and hotel catering at the tertiary level. Such courses were unheard of in the 1960’s.
Long before other institutions embraced the innovation of twinning programmes, where Malaysian students were able to get a quality education abroad at a fraction of the cost, Tan Sri Arshad teamed up with Ohio and Kentucky universities in the United States to pioneer “twinning programmes” that today are the rage at many centers of tertiary education in the country.
Tan Sri Arshad also made UiTM the first Malaysian institution to embrace external UK programmes in law and professional accounting such as LLB, ICSA and ACCA. In the 1960s, UiTM was the first institution in Malaysia to offer the prestigious Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) programme. Likewise, under Tan Sri Arshad, UiTM was the first institution in the country to offer full-time education for the well-respected LLB (London) external degree. He stuck to English as medium of instruction and changed the students’ diet, bread for breakfast and sandwiches for lunch, and introduced students to individual counseling and guidance.
ITM was Tan Sri Arshad’s gauntlet. He put his heart and soul into its beginnings, nurturing it with concepts and programmes then unheard of in the higher education sector. The fact that the students were in some ways “late bloomers” like him, spurred him on. For the thousands of school leavers who were not qualified for a place in University Malaya (the only one then) the visionary Arshad gave them an alternative to get an education. As he says, “Life is never perfect but you must make the best use of what is given.” There is no doubt that he was directly responsible for the conversion of ITM from a time and place where students took external British examinations, to an institution offering a long list of professional courses, and secure an ITM diploma and later, a degree.
When Tan Sri Arshad opened UiTM’s doors in 1965, the student population was only 219 with just 11 lecturers. When he left in 1975, there were 6,856 students and 904 lecturers serving 60 programmes in 13 different schools and branch campuses in Kota Kinabalu, Kuching, Arau (Perlis) and (Dungun) Terengganu. Today UiTM is the nation’s largest institution of higher learning in terms of size and population.
Tan Sri Arshad is widely regarded as a far-sighted educator who has had a tremendous impact on business and education in Malaysia for nearly half a century. He fervently believes that a second chance is everyone’s right especially if there are no initial environmental disadvantages. It is no exaggeration to say that he gave hope to many young Malaysians who had little or no hope for an academic future. From an early age he knew what it was like to be poverty-stricken, and that to gain a footing in the “land of opportunities” one had to go to school. Without education, no form of liberation – mental or physical – can take place. He learned the attributes of determination, resourcefulness and hard work early in life.
Aberystwyth Recognition – Arshad and Zaleha with their children in Aberystwyth in celebration of his honorary award. From left: Azmir, Azmi, Azlin, Arshad, Zaleha, Soraya (daughter-in-law) and Azman, 1995.
Following his time at ITM Tan Sri Arshad steadily climbed the ladder of the civil service to reach the rank of Secretary General of three Ministries by the time he retired in 1983. These were the then Ministry of Primary Industries, Ministry of Agriculture, and the Ministry of Land and Regional Development. In addition, Tan Sri Arshad was appointed as member of the Harun Salary Commission for statutory bodies and was also entrusted with responsibilities as Deputy Governor of Bank Negara, Malaysia’s central bank. He also served as the Deputy Director General of the Economic Planning Unit.
KUALA LUMPUR: The man who first headed what is now known as Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) has called for the acceptance of non-Bumiputera students for its postgraduate programmes.
Arshad Ayub, who became the director of Institut Teknologi Mara when it opened in 1965 and stayed in the position for 10 years, said he believed Malaysia had reached a stage in its history when it had become appropriate for UiTM to enrol students of all races, but only at the postgraduate level.
“If you ask me whether non-Malays should be able to go to UiTM, my own view is that at the master’s degree level, the graduates should be able to compete with other races,” he told reporters covering an event for underprivileged schoolchildren in Segambut yesterday.
At the undergraduate level, however, Malays and other Bumiputeras were not ready for such competition, he said, adding that this was also true of professional training in such fields as accountancy and engineering at the university.
“All the handicaps are at those levels,” he said. “That’s where we should still have opportunities for them to address their deprivation so that they’ll be ready to compete after three or five years of education and training.”
Arshad, now 90 years old, said he was committed to helping deprived youths in his working days. “And these youths happened to be Bumiputeras. Most of them were from the rural areas.”
Speaking of how far UiTM had come, he noted that its alumni now numbered about three quarters of a million and included professionals and doctoral graduates.
However, he said today’s students at the university lacked exposure to ways of thinking in cultures other than their own.
“To me, our wealth in this life is our exposure,” he said. “Back when I was director of ITM, only 5% of the lecturers were Malays. The others were Indians, Chinese, Portuguese, English, Japanese, Belgians, Americans, Germans, Australians, Canadians, even Russians.”
His students were thereby exposed to a wide range of cultures and perspectives, he added.
“I can say that the students now have less exposure,” he said. “If the students are 100% Bumiputeras and lecturers are 95% Bumiputeras, how will they get exposure to other cultures and ways of thinking apart from watching TV and reading books?”