The dangers of feudalism in Malaysian society

December 7,2018

The dangers of feudalism in Malaysian society


Image result for dr syed hussein alatas--"Intellectuals in Developing Societies”.

We Malaysians are so used to feudalism. The culture of patronage and neo-feudalism is firmly entrenched in the 21st century Malaysian mindset. A feeding tube, through which “bebalisma” trickles, regularly nourishes this culture.

Bebalisma is a concept encompassing the notions of foolishness, idiocy, brainlessness, irresponsibility, unintelligence and half-wittedness. The late Syed Hussein Alatas, lexiconnoisseur par excellence, devoted an entire chapter to bebalisma (Chapter 3) in his masterpiece, “Intellectuals in Developing Societies”.

Image result for dr syed hussein alatas--"Intellectuals in Developing Societies”.

A Corrupt and Disgraced feudal  Malay Politician

The development of Malaysia’s post-colonial politics has been chequered by these notions. Our political history exposes an intellectual development that has gone awry. We can blame none other than our enduring culture of patronage and neo-feudalism. It continues to be the assembly line in which bebalisma is efficiently manufactured, packaged and recycled for eager market consumption. Post-May 9 political transformations have not been spared. I take note of a few developments post-GE14 to demonstrate that feudalism is very much alive despite prevailing anti-corruption, anti-racist and anti-bigotry sentiments that brought the Barisan Nasional administration to its knees.

In October, the central leadership of DAP rightfully called for the prohibition of elected representatives and councillors from accepting titles and awards while still in active political service. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong and state rulers were informed of DAP’s decision that titles and awards should be accepted only after the awardees have proven themselves in active service with positive results.

Awards during service is unjustified and leads to complacency. Given the feudal mentality of Malaysian society, a Datuk, Datuk Seri, Tan Sri or Tun has the upper hand in many aspects of governance including access to corrupt practices. We have seen in the previous administration how this abuse gained momentum, and the attention it was given by the media. For instance, in 2017 a series of print and online newspapers carried stories of “Datuks breaking the law”. One newspaper even suggested that at the rate so many Datuks and Datuk Seris are getting into trouble, “the Prison Department might have to build a new wing just to house these VIPs”. The editor of that newspaper had a welcoming tongue-in-cheek sense of humour. However, such humour is premised on acceptable norms but unacceptable cultural values.

Datuks and Tan Sris are VIPs, but whether they are given preferential treatment or not as criminals should not be open to debate. I would like to see more of our media focusing on the phenomenon that our feudal past should stay in the past. Furthermore, the donning of the notorious “orange lock-up” attire is befitting for all criminals, irrespective of whether they were former leaders in government. A criminal is a criminal. Society was cheated, individuals were hurt, citizens’ rights were looted. A title should not have the power to minimise such violations of societal values.

The general public and the ruling elite must change the prevailing perception of what it means to be respected in society. Feudal notions of respect are superficial and empty. An individual earns respect based on services rendered, not on how many lines your name is.

These services have to benefit a majority rather than a select minority with vested interests. The feudal attitude that is so prevalent in Malaysia has resulted in what Dr. Mahathir Mohamad has bemoaned for a long time, more so since he took office in May this year. The sense of shame among Malaysians is at an all-time low.

But how can one feel ashamed of being corrupt or committing academic fraud if punishment is going to be only skin-deep? Feudalism dictates leniency. Since the release of the National Unity Consultative Council blueprint in October this year, there has been a renewed urgency to tackle racial and religious tensions. Last week’s disturbing incident in Seafield, USJ 25 (Sri Maha Mariamman temple), though, tells me more about the misperception of values as opposed to politicking based on race and religion. Let me explain.

Six civilians were injured, including a policeman and a firefighter. The latter caught the media’s attention as his injuries were critical, apart from him being Malay. What caught my attention though were the appeals made by readers in the comment sections of many online media portals. Many called for an end to senseless bickering by politicians, and an end to politicising race and religion by the opposition. Some made visceral attacks targeted at Malays, while others from various races appealed for normality. One non-Malay reader commented that the Malays are a peace-loving, kind, polite and “soft” people, implying that the temple fracas had nothing to do with race or religion.

I agree, but I also worry that these positive Malay traits are fodder for the perpetuation of a feudal mindset in our society. Manipulators will certainly take advantage of such noble characteristics to claim subservience from the hinterland. Rural folk revere their leaders, especially those with titles. They are regarded as orang besar. The reality is that most rural Malaysians have blind loyalty for their titled heroes. Ongoing support for the likes of our previous leaders and their respective parties is a strong case in point. However, the values of being a kind, polite and “soft” people must be divorced from the backward feudal ideology that has been etched into the Malaysian mindset. The only way we can evolve from this feudal pit of inequality is through education.

Our schools should continue teaching universal moral values. Religious education should be separate from our national education curriculum. More time and resources should be devoted to the teaching of the negative aspects of feudalism and its detrimental effect on the social contract.

Education Minister Maszlee Malik’s call to include the 1MDB scandal in Malaysian history is welcomed. However, if this is not deeply thought through, young minds will fail to see a connection between feudal patronage and corruption. After all, the 1MDB scandal was engineered by many orang besar. Similarly, Malaysians are taught in school to be polite from young, but they should also be taught that stating the honorific Datuk or Tan Sri many times in a single sentence when addressing an orang besar is unnecessary. It does not make the conversation more polite or morally elevated. All it does is prolong an irrational hierarchy in social interaction.

Feudalism being what it is – reverence of a leader, a personality rather than adherence to an ideology – opens society to blatant manipulation. Citizens’ representatives should also be given the choice of whether to accept an honorific or not, without any character assassination should he/she refuse it. In our culture, it is believed that not accepting such awards would be an insult to the Agong or the rulers. On the contrary, I see such a refusal as humble, and an example of a dedicated and selfless “servant” of society. These values should be revered. Such an act of refusal demonstrates great integrity and decency. A feudal mind, however, would think otherwise. A feudal mind would value the financial perks and parking in a no-parking zone.

The overwhelming feeling of privilege and self-deservedness among Malaysians is staggering. For instance, in the world of academia, the highest award given is Emeritus. In Malaysia, we also have Profesor Ulung and Profesor DiRaja, both of which do not make any sense in the global scholarly arena.

On an international level, a professor has reached the highest level of scholarly achievement in a particular academic field based on the decades he or she has devoted to teaching, research and publishing. Recognition of profound academic achievement is also given if students of such professors have achieved their own pristine level of scholarship. Both student and mentor are highly regarded, irrespective of who has been awarded the honorific.

Also, merely the quantity of publications should not be the litmus test of success or failure in the academia. Internationally, academics are given high recognition for quality publications – articles and books that offer cutting-edge discoveries, new theories and creative interpretations that can potentially improve the way we live. An academic could write only a single magnus opus throughout his or her career, and yet go down in history as a legendary scholar and a great mind.

The award of Professor Emeritus should not be dished out irresponsibly. At the monthly staff assembly in the Prime Minister’s Department earlier this week, Dr.Mahathir reminded the government and members of the administration that the power bestowed on them means that they should feel great responsibility to avoid self-benefit and self-interest. Instead, “with great power comes great responsibility”.

Chapter 4 of Alatas’ “Intellectuals in Developing Societies” is entitled “The Fools in Developing Societies”. A serious expose is presented on a somewhat “foolish” topic. The state of being a fool in society is prolonged by titled individuals. These decorated individuals come a dime a dozen. If the deserving are honoured, there would be fewer fools in society. If we learn to appreciate the value of excellence and hard work, we would create a society that strives for such an achievement. In the process the level of competency in all aspects of society will be raised.

In the current Malaysian context, H.G Wells’ “martian red weed” (in “The War of the Worlds”) represents how bebalisma has encroached into every nook and cranny of our lives. It is proving to be a herculean task to re-programme such a mindset.

Many in the top political intelligentsia, the business community and society in general seem oblivious to the “invisible hand” of feudalism. We complain a lot about corruption, racism, bigotry, poor quality of education, the increase in consumer prices, high road accident rates, lack of academic freedom, etc. I hope we will continue to find solutions to these serious problems by invoking a more anti-feudalism, anti-bebalisma narrative.

Thankfully there are segments of Malaysian society which have consciously rejected this feudal hierarchy of “idol worship”. However, our education system must become more involved as the young need to be taught that feudalism is not acceptable just because it is part of our tradition.

* The views expressed are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of FMT.


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10 thoughts on “The dangers of feudalism in Malaysian society

  1. Most, if not all, of us are self serving. Those who are not, are very few in numbers (if there are any). Not all of us are equal with respect to possession of power. Those who possess more might, power or force at their disposal, wields them for their own benefit and interests, in ways that are not beneficial, even detrimental, to the well-being and welfare of those who are lacking possession of it. Thus we have, a means to wield power over others to attain subservience, fear, and maybe respect. Such, in my view, is the essence of a feudalistic system. So if men are concerned and fearful of having their welfare harmed, and are subservient and respectful of those ho wields power as a result of that, no amount of education can redress this situation UNLESS a strong regiment of rule of law is instituted, where everyone is treated as equal before the law, such that abuse of power is put in check.

    • Where education cannot address the problem of abuse of power (but a strong regiment of rule of law can), it can nevertheless attenuate its effects such that the influence of power gradually tapers off to a point where it becomes substantially weakened.

      Education achieves this by way of heightening men’s awareness of, and faith in, God as the final arbiter in all aspects of human affairs. This is where religious education matters.

      Where religious education strengthens faith in God, and in the adage that “Men proposes and God disposes”, it is useful; where it does not, it needs to be examined for then I think it fails to develop saintly men who are contented in their submission to God’s disposition. On this account then, religious education, only for so long that it produces this effect, is a very powerful tool to address the problem associated with men’s feudalistic mindset; as faith causes men to replace their loyalty and submission to, and fearfulness of, other men with loyalty and submission to, and fearfulness of, God instead.

    • Perhaps another area where education serves a purpose in addressing the question of blind loyalty that a feudalistic system characterizes is in addressing in the development of the powers of reasoning such that people, even though they live and operate in such a system, could still function sensibly rather than senselessly. The writer’s hope for “,,,,,,,a more anti-feudalism, anti-bebalisma narrative” could be realized when people have become sensible and reasonable as a result of education such that feudalism gradually loses its grip on their minds.

  2. Feudalism is but one form of Hierarchical social constructs. The Malay form may be especially ‘galling’ due to the corruption and abuse – otherwise, it ain’t so special.
    Meritocracy can have it’s detractors and even Lil Dot is has major problems with Elitism.. Egalitarianism, unfortunately is an Enlightenment phenomenon – perhaps transient, as long as Man remains an Ape..?

    Octo is right, without the gross corruption which he initiated, Malay Feudalism would not be so disgusting today.

  3. Before a title is awarded, the potential recipient should be sounded out if he would accept the title. I know of one case where the daughter of a prominent doctor turned down a state scholarship to the embarrassment of the government because she felt the government had ill treated her father unfairly.

  4. Malay royalty is a cornerstone of feudalism. Remove it and feudalism would be gone forever, hopefully. Some may argue this would undermine Malay interests. May not really. Create governorships – all Malays, if need be. The difference – one is hereditary and the other people elected and with proper tweaking, the constitution can provide for this.

    • LGE, son of LKS. Nurul Izzah, daughter of Anwar Ibrahim. Harapan too carries a sense of feudalism. Feudalism occurs when a nation starts to show a sign of aging, when there is no new narrative.

      After Tun Perak, there is none worth mentioning. After Tun Dr …

  5. Scions of reputable people, especially when they are talented, should not be denied opportunities because of their background. It is manifestly unfair and could lead to undercutting talent growth and its benefits to the nation. Just imagine the talented one is your son or daughter – will your opinion be different?

    • “Thus by survival of the fittest, the militant type of society becomes characterized by profound confidence in the governing power, joined with a loyalty causing submission to it in all matters whatever”.
      Herbert Spencer: ‘Man versus the State’.

      So are you a social Darwinist? Perhaps both katasayang know not of what you speak?

      In order that one does not shoehorn the fruit of their loins into following their path in life, i’d advocate a different profession, occupation or trade for their offspring. I did – it was a moral obligation to have adaptive diversity and work towards ‘natural adaption’.. Imagine a room full of plumbers or lawyers or accountants or doctors etc? Nothing quite as stultifying after the first 10 mins, ya?

      Only Dullards and their like wish the same ‘drudgery’ and ‘likeness’ for their genes. Shows you how constricted our Minds and Means have become. Especially when it comes to ‘Politics;..

  6. Sharfa@ Our schools should continue teaching universal moral values. Religious education should be separate from our national education curriculum. More time and resources should be devoted to the teaching of the negative aspects of feudalism and its detrimental effect on the social contract.5?

    If the above had “must” instead of “should”, then perhaps the writer might not be a “soft” Malay too. 😉

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